Abstracts of JTRM in Kinesiology - ISSN 0778-3906

Abstracts of JTRM in Kinesiology - ISSN 0778-3906 (14)

Qi Zhao, M.S., Nanjing Sport Institute, Nanjing, China;
and Weidong Li, Ph.D., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

Abstract

According to theory, students’ implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit theories of ability and perceived enjoyment in PE, and explored whether there were any gender differences in implicit theories of ability and perceived enjoyment in PE. A package of surveys was administered to 252 Chinese 12th graders. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and MANOVA. Chinese 12th grade participants endorsing higher incremental views in ability were likely to enjoy PE more. Male participants showed stronger beliefs in incremental views and enjoyed PE more than females. It was suggested that PE teachers may be able to enhance students’ enjoyment by focusing on incremental views. This is, ability in sports can be increased dramatically by effort and hardworking.

Keywords: growth mindsets, motivation, ability beliefs

Category: Secondary P.E.

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Sarah Swenson; Zachary Pope; University of Minnesota –Twin Cities, MN; and Nan Zeng Springfield College, MA

Abstract

Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a Physical Education program. Seventy-two homeschool children (19 girls) participated in a once-weekly structured Physical Education program over a four-month period with a subsample of children participating in basketball. Pedometers/ accelerometers provided steps/session while accelerometers provided percentage of time in sedentary behavior (SB), light PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Children spent 69.7%, 18.9%, and 8.6% of their time in SB, LPA, and MVPA, respectively. A significant moderate correlation (r = 0.53, p < 0.01) between pedometer- and accelerometer-measured steps/session was found. Significant group differences among SB, LPA and MVPA, and steps/session were only present for steps/session (β = 0.49, p = 0.02) with a marginally significant difference seen for MVPA (β = 3.6, p = 0.07). No significant gender differences were seen on percentage of time in SB, LPA, or MVPA. Results indicated that participation in a Physical Education program may contribute to increasing PA levels of homeschool children. It is recommended that future programs focus on increasing time spent in MVPA.

Keywords: accelerometers, gender differences, pedometers

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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Tao Zhang, PhD; William Moore, PhD; Xiangli Gu, PhD; Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu; and Zan Gao, PhD

Abstract

Approximately half of the children in the United States do not meet the global physical activity guidelines, and many children adopt sedentary lifestyles. Given the fact about two-thirds children are classified as overweight or obese, traditional video games have been blamed as a major contributor to children’s sedentary behavior and excessive weight. However, active video gaming is a new solution to fight increasing sedentary behaviors and childhood obesity. The major purpose of this study was to review the prevalence of sedentary behaviors in children and examine the factors contributing to the trend of decreasing physical activity in children. The second purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which video games are used by children and potential benefits associated with active video gaming, specifically to promote physical activity in children. The additional purpose was to offer an argument for educational professionals in the school setting to integrate active video games as a way to combat sedentary behaviors and obesity utilizing the self-determination theory and expectancy-value model as theoretical frameworks.

Keywords: Active video games, motivation, physical activity, obesity

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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Todd Layne, Ph.D.
Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Memphis - USA

Abstract

Most universities provide a plethora of physical activity courses in which students may choose to participate. Little research exists on the instructional impact of university students’ participation in physical activity courses. Although some papers have produced positive findings regarding the Sport Education model in the university setting, none have analyzed the impact of instructional approaches on the performance and enjoyment of students. The purpose of this paper was to examine the instructional impact on the performance and enjoyment of students participating in a jogging activity course. The participants in this study were 26 students (15 males, 11 females; 15 SE, 11 Direct Instruction). The study incorporated a mixed methods research design using both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data consisted of the one mile pre-and post-test and a pre-and post-8-item motivational analysis using the PAES. Qualitative data was collected through the completion of critical incident reports on thoughts regarding the class. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze data to determine areas of significance related to the outcomes of the one mile run and scores from the PAES. Qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Results indicated similarities between the two groups with regards to performance and enjoyment. Student feedback did provide favorable remarks regarding the features of the SEM. It was concluded that both instructional approaches produced favorable results regarding university students’ performance and enjoyment of jogging.

Keywords: sport education, direct instruction, jogging, university, physical activity

Category: Original Research

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Seth E. Jenny, Ph.D.
Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, USA

Abstract

In order to achieve success, there is little doubt that sport coaches must overcome a plethora of challenges beyond simply designing and implementing effective training schedules and competition strategies. The United States high school interscholastic sports environment is no different. The purpose of this short essay is to provide a personal coaching narrative from a United States high school boys and girls cross country coach as he discusses the challenges confronted in overcoming administrative obstacles to successfully prepare his student-athletes for competition. In particular, this paper chronicles how the coach successfully negotiated the political landscape of having his team being permitted to be dismissed from school in adequate time to arrive at away weekday cross country meets in order to adequately warm-up and prepare for competition. Oftentimes, these coaching stories exist, but are rarely recorded. It is the hope of the author that other coaches in similar situations may glean ideas on how to best handle these situations within their their own programs. This essay may be of interest to all coaches, but high school coaches in particular, as many of whom may be able to relate to the administrative issues that have to be negotiated for a sport program to thrive. Moreover, further commentary and discussion on this topic is invited.

Keywords: interscholastic athletics, cross country, running, pre-performance routines, warm-up

Category: Practitioner's Notes

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Abstract

The following article comprises a case study that considers the potential for an Indigenous digital resource to be used within a dance undergraduate context. In this manner, suggestions for dance pedagogy and practice are offered in relation to the Indigenous Education Strategy at Charles Sturt University, together with a university digital learning resource, Cassie’s Story: Dyan Ngal, that seeks to develop cultural competence. Through exploration of one scene from this latter resource, the author expands on the ways in which it could become the stimulus and indeed provide a framework for dance composition teaching and learning at undergraduate level. Dance has long been viewed by dance anthropologists as a cultural manifestation and a vehicle through which culture might be understood (Kaeppler, 1981; Kealiinohomoku, 1983). The author has endeavoured to underpin each element of her dance teaching and learning processes with an awareness of culture, whilst outlining creative, thematic and cross-curricular possibilities with Cassie’s Story.

Keywords: Cultural competence, culture, Indigenous, Laban, cross-curricular, tokenism.

Category: Practitioner's Notes

 

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Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents’ situational motivation to their physical activity physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels were then assessed by pedometers and Actical® accelerometers for three days. Physical activity levels were quantified as steps per minute for pedometers and percentages of time in sedentary behavior as well as light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for accelerometers. Results: Multiple regression analyses yielded adolescents’ intrinsic motivation was the only positive predictor for their time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (ß = .22, p < .05), and a significant negative predictor in sedentary behavior (ß = -.28, p < .01). Additionally, amotivation negatively predicted steps per minute (ß = -.15, p < .05). Conclusion: Physical educators should identify effective strategies to enhance adolescents’ intrinsic motivation.

Keywords: amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity

Category: Secondary P.E.

 

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Jung Eun Lee 1, Charles Huang, Ph.D. 2 Zachary Pope 1, and Zan Gao, Ph.D. 1

1 School of Kinesiology, the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

2 School of Education, Wayland Baptist University, Plainview, TX

 

Abstract

Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more interactive than traditional games because more body movements are added to the video game experiences. Active video games, if applied in extracurricular settings, will be helpful in maximizing the opportunity for children to be active. As such, this article discusses the health benefits of these active video games, and how to integrate these games into after-school physical activity programs. Additionally, the article also provides strategies for the implementation of DDR, Wii and the Xbox to stage the games, establish competitive/non-competitive physical activity atmospheres, promote teamwork, and improve student physical activity levels.

Keywords:

Dance Dance Revolution, physical activity, school children, Wii, Xbox Kinect

Category

Technology in P.E.

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Dr. Seth E. Jenny - Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, USA
Dr. Glenn F. Hushman - University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA

Abstract

A coaching philosophy is a personal doctrine, or individual set of experiences and values, that guides a coach’s beliefs, actions, and coaching style (Huber, 2013). The humanistic coaching philosophy involves a collaborative coach/athlete process which considers individual athlete differences, abilities, and goals, with the long-term aim of developing a self-confident and self-regulated athlete (Lyle, 1999). Opposite of the traditional model where success is determined by wins or losses, within the humanistic approach winning is redefined so that the process is emphasized and achievement of individual athlete goals indicates success. Through coach interviews, athlete interviews, training session observations, and artifact collection, the aim of this case study was to explore the coaching philosophy and methods of a successful men’s NCAA Division I cross country coach and explore to what extent they are humanistic. Definition of success emerged as a primary theme where results indicated that while the participant coach was extrinsically motivated by outcome measures (i.e., winning NCAA national championships), his methods ascribed to the humanistic values of striving for individual athlete potential, holistic development, and self-actualization. Findings suggest that while the NCAA espouses to holistic development of the student-athlete, it is hard to separate athletic outcome measures as at least a portion of the definition of success for coaches working within this setting. .

Keywords:

coaching philosophy, humanism, distance running, cross country

Category

Original Research

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Mike Kniffin, John Foley, Lynn Couturier MacDonald and Kath Howarth
The State University of New York - Cortland

Abstract

Only a handful of research studies have been conducted to determine whether or not physical educators or pre-service physical education teachers are utilizing learning standards in their teaching. While pre-service teachers are typically required to align lesson objectives and content, their extent of their understanding of how learning standards are implemented in actual teaching is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if undergraduate physical education majors could identify instances and non-instances of physical education teachers incorporating learning standards in their lessons. Pre-service teachers viewed a series of secondary physical education teaching episodes captured on digital video recordings. The inter-agreement (IOA) scores for 101 physical education majors ranged from 65%-82% for the four New York State Learning Standards and from 51%-98% for the six National Association of Sport and Physical Education Standards. The researchers found that participants had the most difficulty identifying New York State Learning Standard 2 and National Association of Sport and Physical Education Learning Standard 5, with IOA scores of 65% and 51% respectively. Both of these standards involve personal and social responsibility and fall within the affective domain.

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