The Impact of Adventure Education on Students’ Learning Outcomes in Physical Education: A Systematic Review

  • Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

The major purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on adventure education or adventure-based learning in physical education (PE) between 1976 and 2018 in order to examine the effects of adventure education on students’ learning outcomes in PE such as physical and psychological outcomes. The secondary purpose was to explore PE teachers’ perspectives toward adventure education in PE. Sources in the literature study for analysis were searched through four electronic databases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. The keywords ‘adventure learning,’ ‘adventure education,’ ‘physical activity,’ and ‘physical education’ were used for the literature searches. The literature articles were selected using the following criteria: (a) published in peer-review journal; (b) adventure education or adventure-based learning applied in physical activity (PA) and PE settings; (c) examining the relationship of adventure education with physical or psychological outcomes; (d) participants must be school-aged children; (e) written in English. Based on the above criteria, 11 articles were identified and synthesized to investigate the effects of adventure education or adventure-based learning on elementary and secondary school students’ physical and psychological outcomes. The results suggest that adventure education benefits the developments of school-aged students’ learning outcomes such as peer relationship and emotion

Keywords:Adventure education, physical education, physical activity, school-aged children

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E. category .

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An Examination of the Pediatrician-Prescribed Gaming App-Based Exercise Prescription: A Pilot Study

Sami Yli-Piipari11,* , Mika Manninen1, Bennett L Smith2, Casey Hollibaugh3 , Heather Chambliss4, Jon Udwadia5

  • 1 Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
  • 2 Pinellas County School District, Pinellas County, Florida
  • 3 Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia
  • 4 St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
  • 5 Augusta University & University of Georgia Medical Partnership, Athens, Georgia
  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

This study examined the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) intervention among obese Hispanic children delivered by a free mobile phone game application (app) recommended by a pediatrician. A sample of 40 (age M=10.16[2.01] years) children participated in this pilot study. Pre- and posttest data were collected on participants’ PA attitudes, intention, and objectively measured PA. The intervention was a game-based exercise prescription to engage in at least 20 minutes daily for seven days in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) delivered by their primary care pediatrician. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in sedentary time (SED) (t(26)=3.03, p=.007, d=.66) and an increase in moderate PA (MPA) (t(26)=3.19, p=.005, d=-.69), vigorous PA (VPA) (t(26)=-5.74, p<.001, d=-1.25), and MVPA (t(26)=-9.09, p<.001, d=-1.89). In addition, the study showed increase in PA attitudes (t(26)=-3.63, p<.001, d=-1.10) and PA intention (t(20)=-3.13, p=.001, d=-.94) after the intervention. This study provides evidence that a mobile app gaming-based exercise prescription may help to engage obese Hispanic children in health enhancing PA.

Keywords:children, Hispanic, mHealth, physical activity, sedentariness, Treasure Dash, technology

Category: Fitness, Health, and Nutrition .

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Analysis of a Heart Rate Measurement System on Student Motivation and Parent Satisfaction

Michael Joseph Pascal, Todd Estel Layne*, Carol C Irwin

  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a heart rate measurement system on student motivation and parent satisfaction of the information obtained. Participants (n=27) either took a survey as a parent/guardian (n=11) or were interviewed as a student (n=16). The survey was based on a qualitative measure and used to determine the parents’ view of the importance of physical activity and physical education (PE) as an academic course. Additionally, feedback that parents received from PE teachers and what feedback they would like to receive in the future was analyzed. The student interview gauged the participants’ views on motivation, including if they were motivated intrinsically or extrinsically. Questions were also asked regarding physical activity, the use of a heart rate measurement system in PE classes, and the use of heart rate monitors outside of PE. The results showed that all parental participants completing the survey believed PE to be an important class for their child. However, 64% stated that they received no or little feedback regarding their child’s progress in their PE classes. During the interview, 63% of the student participants viewed motivation to be more internal. When asked if they were more concerned with their own heart rate or another student’s heart rate, 69% determined that they were solely concerned with their own heart rate. Findings revealed that the use of a heart rate measurement system had an overall positive impact on students’ view of physical activity. Students believed it would be beneficial to perform more activities with a heart rate measurement system, and parents viewed PE positively, but would like to receive more feedback and information about the activities being performed.

Keywords: physical activity, heart rate monitors, elementary, motivation, parent satisfaction

Category: Elementary P.E.

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Diversity Attitude Associations in Pre-service Physical Education Teachers

Paul Rukavina,1 Jody Langdon,2 Christy Greenleaf,3 Jayne Jenkins4

  • 1. Department of Health and Sport Science, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY
  • 2. Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA
  • 3. Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
  • 4. Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether weight-related attitudes mediate the effect of goal orientation on cultural pluralism and diversity attitudes among pre-service physical educators. Results from 235 (Mage = 20.91 years, SD = 7.75) participants confirm the positive relationship between task orientation and attitudes toward cultural pluralism and diversity attitudes (valuing, appreciating, and implementing), and that individuals who possess negative character stereotypes mediated this relationship. In addition, the positive relationship between ego orientation and being uncomfortable with diversity was confirmed, along with the mediation of negative character stereotypes within this relationship. The results provide initial evidence for factors associated with diversity attitudes that should be addressed in physical education teacher education programs. As research in this area moves forward, it is important to develop and test evidence-based educational interventions in order to improve diversity attitudes and ultimately teacher effectiveness.

Keywords: goal orientations, obesity bias, , pedagogy, diversity, physical education

Category: Original Research

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The effects of the taekwondo training on children’s strength-agility and body coordination levels

Top Elif,1 Akıl Mustafa Li,1 Aydın Nur,1 Phd. Elif TOP1

  • 1. Usak University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Usak, Turkey

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of the taekwondo training given to the children on their strength-agility and body coordination levels. Participants were 42 school children who are 7 to 10 years old. They were divided into the girls’ experimental (n = 9, X = 9.34±1.22 years, height = 134.44±12.77 cm, body weight = 34.16±12.04 kg, BMI [Body Mass Index] = 18.42±3.98 (kg/m2) and control (n= 8, X= 8.60±1.17 years, height = 129.12±9.52 cm, body weight = 31.01±7.85 kg, BMI = 18.29±2.31 (kg/m2) groups; and boys’ experimental (n= 13, X= 9.05±0.78 years, height = 135.23±6.95 cm, body weight = 32.81±7.46 kg, BMI = 17.77±2.99 (kg/m2) and control (n= 12, X= 9.06±1.03 years, height = 132.16±9.62 cm, body weight = 29.95±7.45 kg, BMI = 16.94±2.43 (kg/m2)) groups. The experimental groups of both boys and girls took a standardised group exercise program led by the taekwondo coaches, which lasted for three times a week in 12 weeks, while control groups of both boys and girls did not take any trainig. The bilateral coordination, balance, running speed-agility and strength of sub-tests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) were employed before and after training. The results indicated that a statistically significant difference was found between strength & agility post-test values in girls. When the time interaction experimental and control groups of boys and girls were examined, a statistically significant difference was found between body coordination and strength-agility values. It was concluded that a 12-week taekwondo training given to the children in the 7-10 age group has increased the body coordination and strength-agility levels of the girls and boys.

Keywords: Strength, Agility, Coordination, Child, BOT-2

Category: Youth Sports

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Examining Associations among Motivation, Physical Activity and Health in Chinese College Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Wenxi Liu,1 Xianxiong Li,2 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,1 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,4 MEd; Mohammad Ayyub1; M.Ed; Kun Tao,4 PhD; Qingwen Peng,4 PhD;

  • 1. University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
  • 2. Hunan Normal University, School of Physical Education, Changsha, China
  • 3. Shenzhen Polytechnic University, Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen, China
  • 4 Huaihua University, School of Physical Education, Huaihua, China

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the associations among motives and physical activity behaviors and health in urban college students in China. Eight hundred and eighty-seven college students (521 females; Mage = 20.51, SD = ± 1.67) were recruited from four universities in South and South-central China. Participants’ motives (i.e., interest/enjoyment, competence, appearance, fitness, social) toward to physical activity behaviors were measured by the established Motives for Physical Activities Measure (Ryan et al., 1997), while physical activity behaviors were assessed via the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaires for Chinese (Macfarlane et al., 2007). The data were collected in June 2016 and 2017. Participants’ total metabolic equivalent (METs) was calculated as the outcome of physical activity behaviors. On average, participants reported 412 METs (SD = 290.82) of physical activity for the prior week. Correlation analysis suggested that all motive components were moderately or highly correlated with one another (r = 0.37 - 0.74; p < 0.01), and these variables were significantly, yet modestly, related to physical activity behaviors (r = 0.12 - 0.24; p < 0.05). Regression analyses further indicated that the whole model explained 24.5% of the variance [F (5, 394) = 5.02, p <.01] when using motives to predict physical activity behaviors. Interestingly, participants’ interest/enjoyment was the only significant and positive predictor for their physical activity (β = 0.23, p < 0.01). Findings suggest that Chinese college students were relatively physically active on a weekly basis. Students’ interest/enjoy toward physical activity is a very important motive in promoting physical activity behavior among this population. Health professionals and educators are encouraged to offer a variety of interesting and enjoyable activities for Chinese college students with the goal of helping this population develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle.

Keywords:Motivation, Physical activity behavior, Self-determination Theory

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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Chinese College Students’ Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior: A Transtheoretical Model Perspective

Shanying Xiong,1 M.Ed; Xianxiong Li,2 Ph.D; Kun Tao,3 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,4 MEd; Mohammad Ayyub4; Qingwen Peng,3 PhD; Xiaoni Yan,3 PhD; Junli Wang,3 PhD; Yizhong Wu3; & Mingzhi Lei3

  • 1. Shenzhen Polytechnic University, Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen, China
  • 2. Hunan Normal University, School of Physical Education, Changsha, China
  • 3. Huaihua University, School of Physical Education, Huaihua, China
  • 4 University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Abstract

Guided by the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), this study investigated the differences of physical activity levels and correlates (i.e., self-efficacy, decisional balance, process of change) across different stages of change levels among Chinese college students. The relationships between students’ physical activity correlates and physical activity behavior was also examined. The participants were 887 college students (365 males; Mage = 20.51, SD = ± 1.67) recruited from four universities in south and south-canter China. Participants completed a battery of established questionnaires assessing their physical activity correlates (self-efficacy, decisional balance, process of change) and 1-week physical activity levels. Results suggested that Chinese college students in the high stage of change group reported significantly higher physical activity levels and correlates than those in the low stage of change group. Pearson correlation analyses suggested that students’ self-efficacy was moderately related to other correlates and physical activity behavior. Yet, decisional balance and process of change were only modestly associated with physical activity levels for both groups. Regression analyses further revealed students’ self-efficacy emerged as the only significant contributor of their daily PA levels across the two groups. However, decision balance and process of change failed to predict physical activity levels. The implications for practice and direction of future research were discussed.

Keywords:Decisional balance, Physical activity levels, Process of change, Self-efficacy

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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Guardian Caps: What’s the Impact?

Seth E. Jenny, Wardell Rouse , Ashlie Seibles
Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, USA

Abstract

Reported sport-related concussion rates have dramatically increased recently. In response, the Guardian company has emerged as a leading manufacturer of soft-shell helmet covers. The “Guardian Cap” is a foam padded covering that fits over a helmet that aims to reduce the impact of collisions and lessen the chance of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived effectiveness of using Guardian Caps in preventing concussions in youth and high school football players. In addition, this study also examined reported coaching strategies used in the attempt to reduce concussions with these athletes. United States high school and youth football stakeholders (e.g., coaches, athletic directors, youth football presidents, etc.) completed an online survey containing Likert-based and open response questions focusing on the main research goals. On average, participants reported a 40.5% decrease in concussions per year after transitioning to using Guardian Caps with their youth or high school football players. However, 16.2% of participants would not recommend the use of Guardian Caps, citing concerns such as helmet warranty worries, helmet bulkiness, product malfunctions, and expense. Moreover, several additional methods participants’ used in an effort to keep players safe from concussions are also discussed. Findings may assist youth and high school football coaches and athletic directors in making informed equipment and coaching decisions regarding player safety focusing on reducing concussions with their players.

Keywords: concussion, football, CTE, tackling, head injury, SIS

Category: Original Research

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“Mind Blown” – Including Exercise Science Students as Research Assistants to Reduce Ageist Perceptions

Sam Forlenza, PhD
Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Shippensburg University, USA

Abstract

The amount of older adults is increasing rapidly and the demands of an aging population will need to be met by professionals in many fields, including exercise science. However, many undergraduate students do not want to work with older adults. Therefore, this qualitative study sought to examine the experiences and perceptions of exercise science students who served as research assistants in a six-month walking program for senior citizens. Students recognized that their previous ageist views about older adults’ functioning (which originated from personal experiences, education, and society) were challenged by the walking program. Subsequently, more positive views on aging, being an older adult, and working with older adults were elicited by their assistance in the research study. Results from this investigation suggest that exercise science and allied health students be exposed to aging-sensitive experiences to dispel ageist perceptions and ultimately increase the workforce needed to serve this expanding population.

Keywords: aging, older adults, stereotypes, ageism, qualitative research

Category: Interdisciplinary

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The Feasibility of Using the Super Tracker Website for Behavior Changes in the Adolescent Population

Ebony Taylor1, Diane Cuy Castellenos1

1 Department of Health and Sports Science, University of Dayton, USA

Abstract

Research suggests technology such as health websites may be a viable way to effect lifestyle behavior and promote health. Several websites utilize self-monitoring of physical activity and diet as well as provide health-related education as a method to impact behavior. One such site is the Super Tracker tool on ChooseMyPlate.gov, created by the United States Department of Health. The site was created to encourage healthy diet and physical activity within the US population. Therefore, the aim of this original research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility outcomes of a self-monitoring physical activity intervention delivered by the Super Tracker website among inner city adolescents. A total of 26 students volunteered for this feasibility study. The website incorporates goal setting, self-monitoring of physical and dietary activity. Focus groups were conducted to assess the participants’ perceptions of the intervention and the application performance. Results suggested that the website intervention was feasible and acceptable to adolescents and may be utilized as an integral part in behavioral interventions for this specific population.

Keywords: acceptability, physical activity, web-based, weight management

Category: Interdisciplinary

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